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We present the forensic anthropological study of the relic of the skull of James Alphaeus, which was preserved in the Chapel of the Relics of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). The remains consist of skull fragments and another few bones, which are in a state of carbonization and highly fragmented. The results show that the remains belong to a mature adult male individual, and the injuries to the skull were probably produced by a small blunt instrument such as a sword. These results lead us to doubt the identity of the remains.