Bioarchaeology is a vibrant, interdisciplinary field of study that cross-cuts biological anthropology, archaeology, and social theory to situate past peoples within their biological, cultural, and environmental circumstances. The field emphasizes not only the study of human remains but the integrative analysis and interpretation of their context, including the archaeological, socio-cultural and political milieu, and environmental setting. Bioarchaeology focuses on both state-of-the-art methodological innovation and use of theory to investigate a diversity of questions, and is built upon the biocultural approach that recognizes the interconnections among biology, culture, and environment.

Bioarchaeology International is included in multiple indexes and databases, including Ebsco Academic Search Ultimate, Gale Academic OneFile, ProQuest Central, and ProQuest Social Science Database. BI has been submitted to the Web of Science for an impact factor and is currently pending acceptance.



Bioarchaeology International is a quarterly journal that is global in scope, providing rigorous peer-reviewed publication of substantive articles related to the study of archaeological human remains and mortuary sites. Submissions that are contextually and theoretically informed, and explore the human condition and ways in which human remains and their funerary contexts can provide unique insight on variation, behavior, and lifestyle of past people and communities are encouraged. Studies may represent varying scales of analysis (e.g., regional, community, site/sample, individual, structural, cellular or molecular) that focus on theoretical and methodological issues in the field. Topics of interest include mortuary archaeology and funerary practices, social identity and life course, demography, diet, disease, activity and behavior, residential mobility and migration, skeletal and dental morphological variation and biodistance, trajectories of growth and development, taphonomic processes, responses to shifts in climate or subsistence, responses to colonization or conquest, and other relevant subjects. 




Research Articles:  Full-length theoretically informed and data-oriented submissions related to the intent and scope of the journal. These papers may include broad interregional comparisons, regional perspectives, population/community or site/sample level analyses, or explore themes of interest in bioarchaeology. Manuscripts should range from 6000–8000 words, excluding tables, figure captions, and references. 


Brief Reports:  Shorter submissions that may be of a methodological or technical nature or provide innovative perspectives or insights of interest to other investigators. Manuscripts should be 2000–3000 words in length, excluding tables, figure captions, and references.


Review Articles:  Lengthier submissions that summarize the current state of understanding on a topic, provide innovative insights on themes currently under investigation, and shape the future direction of the field. Manuscripts should be 8000–10000 words in length, excluding tables, figure captions, and references. Two reference lists should be provided, one of the works cited in the manuscript and another of additional readings that include highly relevant recent work in the field. The total length should not exceed 25,000 words.


Invited Commentary:  Essays that provide synthetic commentary and perspectives on recent themes or issues in the field. Commentary normally will be invited by the Editors-in-Chief, though proposals to contribute an essay on a particular topic may also be considered. Manuscripts usually should not exceed 5000 words exclusive of tables, figure captions, and references. 


Letters to the Editor:  Letters to the Editor should be submitted through the ScholarOne portal and will be considered for publication in Bioarchaeology International provided they do not contain any inflammatory or libelous language or material that has been published previously. A Letter to the Editor will be reviewed by both Editors-in-Chief and may be edited for clarity or brevity. Letters concerning an article published in BI should not exceed 400 words (excluding references) and must be received within one month of the print publication of the article to which it pertains. Letters that do not relate to a BI article may also be submitted at any time to provide information to readers on new discoveries, methods, collections, etc. Such letters also must be no more than 400 words (excluding references) and must disclose any financial associations or potential conflicts of interest.




Submit “as-you-like”: Bioarchaeology International is pleased to offer authors the ability to submit papers for initial consideration without regard to specific formatting guidelines. In-text citations and the list of references should follow a consistent style but we do not require a specific format for the initial submission. If you are invited to submit a revised manuscript, you will be required to format the paper at that point according to our Style Guidelines.


Furthermore, we will allow the initial submission to take the format of either separate files for the text, tables, and figures or one composite file. If you submit separate files, our system will compile your manuscript into a pdf for reviewers with the tables and figures at the end. To facilitate reviewing, we recommend instead that you create a pdf with the figures and tables in-line, placed where they would eventually go in the body of the text. Table captions should be placed above the table and figure captions should be placed below the figure. If you are invited to submit a revised manuscript, you will then be required to provide us with individual files: a word (doc) or rft document containing the body of the paper, a separate doc files for each table, and publication-quality figures uploaded as TIFF files.


Authors must submit manuscripts through the ScholarOne system at (An author who does not have online access should contact the Editors-in-Chief for instructions on how to proceed). You will need to create an account the first time you use the ScholarOne system as either an author or reviewer for Bioarchaeology International. To create an account, follow the step-by-step online instructions at To facilitate our professional copyediting, all manuscripts must be submitted in American English. Prior to submission, authors may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited to improve the English.


Authors submitting manuscripts to Bioarchaeology International must abide by international standards and guidelines promulgated by the Committee on Publication Ethics ( Authors must ensure that all work has been properly permitted, licensed (if necessary), and referenced. 


Submission Process

The type of paper being submitted (see above) must be selected before uploading files. The authors have two options for the initial submission to BI. We recommend submitting a single pdf with in-line figures and tables (already captioned) for ease of reviewing. However, authors can also submit the text, figures, tables, and other types of files must be uploaded separately in the following formats:


  • Title page, English abstract, text, and references in a single Microsoft Word DOC or DOCX file, or Rich Text Format (RTF). Both the text and references should be double-spaced.
  • Each figure in individual TIF or EPS format preferred (JPEG may be used if high quality with minimum compression). Interactive images (e.g., KML or KMZ maps, 3D PDF) should be uploaded separately. Interactive images must be accompanied by a normal static image in an appropriate format for peer-review and the print version of the journal that is labeled sequentially with normal figures. For example, a 3D PDF must also be submitted as a TIF or JPEG of required resolution and an interactive KML or KMZ map must be submitted as a stationary image of appropriate file type. These static images will link to the interactive content when viewed on line.
  • Tables in one DOC, DOCX, RTF files, or separate Excel files.
  • The reference template for Bioarchaeology International is available in many of the most popular reference management software products, including all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. When using the word processor plug-ins from these products you may select the appropriate journal template while preparing your article, after which citations and bibliographies will be formatted automatically in the correct style for Bioarchaeology International. If your reference management software does not have a template available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this guide.


The submitted files will be merged into a single PDF manuscript by ScholarOne. Be sure to retain an electronic copy of each file you submitted that is identical to the version submitted online and a copy of the PDF generated by ScholarOne. Tables and figures accompanying the main text should be limited to those that convey the necessary information. Additional material may be provided as supplemental information (see below) that will be available in the online version only.


Review Process

The Editors reserve the right to reject (with or without peer review), or return for revision, any manuscript that may not fit the scope of the journal, is of poor quality, is excessively long, does not comply with the journal’s style, or violates ethical requirements. Manuscripts will be assigned to an Associate Editor, who will invite reviewers and make a recommendation to the Editors-in-Chief based upon those reviews. Reviewers will remain anonymous to authors, though the identity of authors will be known to the reviewers. 


Decisions on acceptance, minor or major revision, or rejection are made by the Editors-in-Chief based upon the recommendations made by the Associate Editor and reviewers.  A decision letter delineating the outcome will be emailed to the corresponding author by the Editor-in-Chief handling the manuscript. The decision letter will include the reviewers’ assessments. For manuscripts that require revision, any revised documents (including any modified figures or tables) will need to be uploaded to the ScholarOne site. A cover letter that addresses the changes made in response to reviewers’ comments and explains any instance where modification was not made must accompany a revised manuscript. Manuscripts with major revision will be sent again for peer review to ensure changes are adequate and the revised manuscript is suitable for publication. 


Upon acceptance, the manuscript will be professionally copyedited by University of Florida Press personnel and any questions that arise during copyediting will be transmitted to the corresponding author by email. In general, copyedited manuscripts will not be sent to authors unless numerous changes or queries are necessary. Page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author for review and correction of any typographical errors prior to publication online. No text may be rewritten at this stage but editorial errors may be corrected and essential correction of data may be provided. Any changes made by the author are suggestions only and are included at the discretion of the Editors. Corrected proofs should be returned within 48 hours of receipt to the University of Florida Press Journals Manager by email. Revised proofs with corrections shown are not sent to authors. The PDF of corrected page proofs will be posted on the BI web site for Early View access until such time that an article appears within a published issue. A PDF of the published article is supplied to the authors by the publisher for personal use.






Manuscripts are not restricted to a particular format (e.g, Materials, Methods, Results, Conclusion) but should contain headings that define each section of the paper clearly. Do not use INTRODUCTION as a heading or begin the body of the paper with a heading. All headings should be flush left. Primary headings should use initial caps (e.g., Methods, References Cited). Secondary subheadings should have an initial cap only (e.g., Spatial organization of the cemetery). Tertiary headings should be italicized, followed by a period, and run in with the text (e.g., “Hypothesis 3. The…”). 


General Style Instructions


  • Do not begin sentences with abbreviations or acronyms (e.g., “ASU bioarchaeologists recommend that…”).
  • Gender-neutral language should be used, as recommended by the American Anthropological Association in 1973. This statement encourages the use of non-specific sex terminology rather than generic male pronouns (“he” or “him”). Use terms such as “one,” “person,” “humans,” “humankind,” “chairperson,” unless reference is specifically related to sex or gender roles (e.g., “man,” “woman,” “manhood,” etc.).
  • Use numerals for numbers greater than or equal to 10 and for all references to age, weight, measure, or time (e.g., 2 years old; 1 m; 3 kg; 6 ml; 8%). Spell out numbers at the beginning of a sentence or if the number is less than 10 (e.g., “Two individuals,” “One hundred meters,” “Twenty-two percent,” or “found in eight graves at the site”) and when used as an estimate (e.g., “The cemetery was used for several hundred years.”) Ordinal numbers should be spelled out in the text (e.g., “twelfth century,” “twenty-first percentile”) but References Cited should use numerals (e.g., “Paper presented at the 81st Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology”). Commas should be used in numbers of four digits or more (i.e., 1,000, 10,000, 100,000, etc).
  • Use the metric system for all measurements unless referencing historical systems (e.g., 1 cubit). Temperature should be in degrees Celsius. Equivalent units may be inserted parenthetically (e.g., inches, miles, degrees Fahrenheit). Abbreviations are in lower case without periods for measurements (e.g., 2 m, 100 km2, 5 kg, 10 ml, 4 l, etc.).
  • Symbols should be used following numerical values for percent (%) or degrees (°).
  • Abbreviate the word “Figure” in the text only when it appears in parentheses: Figure 1 versus (Fig. 2) or (Figs. 3–4).
  • Report dates in years before present (B.P.) and calendar years as A.D. or B.C.
  • Radiocarbon dates should be identified as calibrated using standard conventions as cal A.D. or cal B.C. The calibration used must be cited and if made for 1 or 2 σ (the latter is preferred). The calibrated age must be presented as a range of calendar age, or ranges with probability of each reported if more than one is possible. Four-digit dates are reported without a comma (e.g., 5468 B.P.), but five-digit dates retain a comma (e.g., 10,560 B.P.). If several calibrated dates are included, they should be presented as a table.
  • Isotope designations should appear in superscript before the element symbol (e.g., 14C rather than C14).
  • Preferred spellings for frequently used terms in bioarchaeology include archaeology (not archeology unless it appears that way in a title or quotation), fieldwork, X-ray (noun), x-ray (verb), cross section (noun), cross-section (verb). Spelling, hyphenation, and punctuation should follow Merriam-Webster’ Collegiate Dictionary, 11th, and Webster’s Third New International Dictionary.
  • Capitalization of nonarchaeological terms should follow The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition, Chapter 7.
  • Include common accents and umlauts for languages such as French, Spanish, Portuguese, German, etc., in the text and in the References Cited section.
  • Use italics for words in any language other than English that do not appear in the dictionary as commonly used in English (e.g., in situ, a priori, etc., are not italicized). Use italics for genus, species, and varietal designations. Titles of books and journals should be italicized when included in the text and in the references cited. Titles of articles should not be italicized when mentioned in the text but put within quotation marks.


Citation Style

In-text parenthetical citations including author and copyright date should be arranged in alphabetical order and individual authors separated by semicolons with reference to specific page numbers, figures, or tables immediately following a colon (e.g., Agarwal and Glencross 2011:8; Baker 2014:Figure 1, 843–844, 852; Ikram et al. 2015). Date of publication should follow mention of an author in the text and should reflect the date of copyright, which may differ from the date of print publication. For example, a journal article on early view will have a copyright date reflecting the year of its online publication, while the journal issue in which it appears may not be published until the following calendar year. Citations and references should reflect the copyright date. If unpublished, the year of manuscript production or submission should be used (e.g., the date submitted for an article in review; the date accepted or date of scheduled publication if known for an article in press). Multiple citations to the same author are separated by commas (e.g., Schoeninger 1995, 1999, 2009).   


Additional examples follow:


According to Cucina and Tiesler (2003:1–2), status differences among the Classic Maya …


Diversity has been found in late Pleistocene populations of North Africa by Crevecoeur et al. (2009) …


When citing multiple works by the same author that were published in the same year, identify each in the text e.g., Geller (2009a, 2009b); Larsen et al. (2001a, 2001b) and included in the references alphabetically by first word of the article or by surname of the second author as follows:


Geller, Pamela L. 2009a. Bodyscapes, biology, and heteronormativity. American Anthropologist 111(4):504–516. DOI: 10.1111/j.1548-1433.2009.01159.x.


Geller, Pamela L. 2009b. Identity and difference: Complicating gender in archaeology. Annual Review of Anthropology 38:65–81. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-091908-164414.


Larsen, Clark Spencer, Mark C. Griffin, Dale L. Hutchinson, Vivian E. Noble, Lynette Norr, Robert F. Pastor, Christopher B. Ruff, Katherine F. Russell, Margaret J. Schoeninger, Michael Schultz, Scott W. Simpson, and Mark F. Teaford. 2001. Frontiers of contact: Bioarchaeology of Spanish Florida. Journal of World Prehistory 15(1):69–123.


Larsen, Clark Spencer, Dale L. Hutchinson, Margaret J. Schoeninger, and Lynette Norr. 2001. Food and stable isotopes in La Florida: Diet and nutrition before and after contact. In Bioarchaeology of Spanish Florida: The Impact of Colonialism, edited by Clark Spencer Larsen. pp. 52–81. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.


Note that any time a citation is included in a parenthetical statement it must be put in brackets.  Example:  (Jankauskas [2003] was among the first to recognize this relationship.)


References Cited

In preparing your manuscript, it is not necessary to include indentations within the references (as shown in the examples provided) although reference software plug-ins may add indentations similar to those used in typesetting accepted manuscripts for publication. All references cited within the text should be arranged in alphabetical order by surname of the first author and by year of publication (oldest first) in the case of multiple references to a single author or set of authors. For authors who have the same last name, use the first letter of the first name to place in alphabetical order (e.g., Baker, Brenda J., followed by Baker, Joan E., and Baker, Paul T.). Names beginning with Mc, Mac, St., or Saint should be alphabetized letter by letter, as they appear. Full names of authors should be used when available. Initials should be used only for authors known by initials (e.g., J.K. Rowling). Authors with two last names (not middle and last names) that are not hyphenated (e.g., Gwen Robbins Schug) should be alphabetized by the first surname (i.e., alphabetized as Robbins Schug; but Jones for Frederic Wood Jones and Larsen for Clark Spencer Larsen as “Wood” and “Spencer” are middle names). For authors with multiple names, such as Spanish names, alphabetize under the first element of the family name followed by the full additional family names following The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition. (e.g., García Lorca, Federico; Balboa, Vasco Núñez de; Picasso, Pablo Diego Ruiz y).


Date of publication should reflect the date of copyright (which will be the date of online availability for journal articles). When consulting an e-book in which pagination differs from the print book, please indicate that the e-book version was consulted. Use chapter numbers or paragraph numbers when page numbers are unavailable. Include full titles of all publications rather than abbreviations and provide the DOI at the end of the reference when it is available. Names of publishers should not include “and Company,” “Inc.,” “Publishers,” etc. For place of publication, names of major cities (Buenos Aires, Cairo, Mumbai, New York, Paris, Sydney) do not need to be accompanied by name of state, province, or country unless ambiguous (e.g., London, Ontario, versus London, England). Less known cities should include additional information with states abbreviated according to U.S. Postal Service designations (e.g., Hoboken, NJ). An exception is made for presses that include mention of state or province in their name (e.g., University Press of Florida, Gainesville).


Single-Author Book

Sofaer, Joanna R. 2006. The Body as Material Culture: A Theoretical Osteoarchaeology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.


Multi-Author Book

Case, D. Troy, and Christopher Carr. 2008. The Scioto Hopewell and Their Neighbors: Bioarchaeological Documentation and Cultural Understanding. Springer, New York.


Edited Volume

Ikram, Salima, Jessica Kaiser, and Roxie Walker, eds. 2015. Egyptian Bioarchaeology: Humans, Animals, and the Environment. Sidestone Press, Leiden.


Revised edition

Katzenberg, M. Anne, and Shelley R. Saunders, eds. 2008. Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.


Translated Book

Duday, Henri. 2009. The Archaeology of the Dead: Lectures in Archaeothanatology. Studies in Funerary Archaeology, vol. 3. Translated by Anna Maria Cipriani and John Pearce. Oxbow Books, Oxford.


Titled Volume or Monograph in a Series

Littleton, Judith. 1998. Skeletons and Social Composition: Bahrain 300 BC–AD 250. BAR International Series, 703. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.


Multivolume Work

Thwaites, Ruben Gold, ed. 1896–1901. The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France, 1610–1791. 73 vols.  Burrows Brothers, Cleveland.




Reprinted Book

Thwaites, Ruben Gold, ed. 2013 [1897]. The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France, 1610–1791, Vol. 4. Burrows Brothers, Cleveland. 2013 facsimile ed. Forgotten Books, London.


Note: The accompanying in-text citation would be (Thwaites 2013 [1897]).


Articles in a Journal

Agarwal, Sabrina C. 2016. Bone morphologies and histories: Life course approaches in bioarchaeology. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement: Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 159(S61):130–149. DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.22905.


Gowland, Rebecca L., and Andrew T. Chamberlain. 2005. Detecting plague: Palaeodemographic characterisation of a catastrophic death assemblage. Antiquity 79:146–157.


Krigbaum, John, Scott M. Fitzpatrick, and Jamie Bankaitis. 2013. Human paleodiet at Grand Bay, Carriacou, Lesser Antilles. The Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology 8(2):210–227. DOI: 10.1080/15564894.2012.756082.


Book Chapters

Tung, Tiffiny A. 2014. Making warriors, making war: Violence and militarism in the Wari empire. In Embattled Bodies, Embattled Places: War in Pre-Columbian America, edited by Andrew K. Scherer and John W. Verano. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C., pp. 229–258.


Cucina, Andrea, and Vera Tiesler. 2011. Salud oral y caries entre los mayas del período clásico. In Vida Cotidiana de los Antiguos Mayas del Norte de la Península de Yucatán, edited by Rafael Cobos and Lilia  Fernández Souza. Ediciones de la Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Mérida, pp. 23–44.


Articles in Conference Proceedings

Stock, Jay T. 2012. Human evolution after the origin of our species: Bridging the gap between palaeoanthropology and bioarchaeology. In Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the British Association for Biological Anthropology and Osteoarchaeology (BABAO), edited by Piers Mitchell and Jo Buckberry. Archaeopress, Oxford, pp. 3–15.


Baker, Brenda J. 2014. Tracking transitions in the Fourth Cataract region of el-Ginefab: Results of the Arizona State University fieldwork, 2007-2009.  In The Fourth Cataract and Beyond: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference for Nubian Studies, edited by Julie R. Anderson and Derek A. Welsby. British Museum Publications on Egypt and Sudan 1. Peeters, Leuven, pp. 841–855.  



Glencross, Bonnie A. 2003. An Approach to the Palaeoepidemiology of Bone Fractures: Methods and Techniques Applied to Long Bones from the Indian Knoll Skeletal Sample, Kentucky. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto.  ProQuest, Ann Arbor, MI.


Schoeninger, Margaret. 1980. Changes in Human Subsistence Activities from the Middle Paleolithic to the Neolithic Period in the Middle East. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.


Conference Presentation

The type of presentation, podium paper or poster, should be indicated. Presentations in symposia should include symposium title and organizers. 


Cucina, Andrea, and Vera Tiesler. 2010. Scurvy among Columbus’ crew: Life and death at La Isabela (1494-1498). Paper presented at the 18th European Meeting of the Paleopathology Association, Vienna.


Jankauskas, R., C. Roberts, R.H.Steckel, C.S. Larsen, P.L. Walker, J. Blondiaux, G.Grupe, G.Maat, G. McGlynn, A. Papathanasiou, M. Teschler-Nicola, U. Wittwer-Backofen, A. Agnew, S. Assis, Z Bereczki, B. Bertrand, T.K. Betsinger, M. Binder, S. Boulter, C. Bourbou, A. Boylston, M. Brickley, L. Bürli, C. Cooper, A. Coppa, J. Coughlan, A. Drozd, E. During, C. Eliopoulos, J. Eng, F. Engle, S. Fox, M. Furtado, G. Gerhards, S. Groves, K. Harkins, P. Holck, M. Holst, G. Hotz, R. Ives, T. Jakob, J. Jennings, H. Jstus, K. Kaminska, A. Kjellström, C. J. Knüsel, T. Kozlowski, A. Lagia, C. Lopes, S. Manolis, A. Marcsik, C. Marques, C. Moenke, C. Niel, S.A. Novak, F. Novotny, J. Peck, I. Potiekhina, B. Rega, R. Richman, F. Rijpma, J. Rose, J. Ruiz, P. Sannen, P. Sciulli, M. Smith, A. Soficaru, M. Spannagl, R. Storm, G. Stroud, E. Subira, D. Swales, V. Tristaroli, E. Tyler, S. Lurich-Bochsler, S. Vatteoni, V. Villar, R. Wiggins, and L.L. Williams. 2009. Contextual dimensions of European health and lifestyle: The archaeological and historical record. Poster presented in the invited symposium, “Reconstructing Health and Disease in Europe: The Early Middle Ages through the Industrial Period,” organized by Richard H. Steckel, Clark Spencer Larsen, Charlotte Roberts, and Phillip L. Walker, at the 78th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Chicago.  



References to web sites and online documents must minimally include the full url and date of access. For web pages that include a copyright date or date last updated, provide this date after the name of the author or group.


Bekvalac, J.  2007. St Mary Graces. Centre for Human Bioarchaeology, Museum of London. Accessed April 12, 2016.


Ikram, Salima. 2014. Animal Mummy Project.!am-project/c21ea. Accessed May 11, 2016.


Mission archéologique Suisse au Soudan. 2016. Kerma. Accessed May 11, 2016.


Endnotes: Use endnotes sparingly.Any endnotes should be numbered consecutively throughout the article.Word processing software that incorporates endnotes may be used. Otherwise, cite the notes consecutively in the text but include them at the end of the document (prior to the References Cited).


Figures: Graphics should be uploaded as separate files that include the figure number (e.g., Figure1.tif, Figure2.jpg). Figures must be numbered consecutively as they are mentioned in the text (i.e., the second reference to a figure must be labeled Figure 2, not Figure 3 or 4). Figures with multiple components (e.g., 1a, 1b, 1c views) should be uploaded as a single file. Lettering must be legible upon reduction and should be consistent within each figure and ideally between figures. Recommended fonts are Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times).


Resolution must meet the minimum required for publication.


Black and white/grayscale or color images should be provided with a minimum resolution of 300dpi at a size of 5 x 7 inches.


If you are scanning artwork, photographs should be scanned at 300dpi at a size of 5 x 7 inches. Line art should be scanned at 1200dpi at a size of 5 x 7 inches.


Digital photographs should be taken at highest quality with minimum compression (RAW files) if possible. Editing programs provided with cameras as well as Adobe Photoshop typically allow saving RAW images in TIF rather than JPG format.


Color images will appear in the online version and downloadable PDF free of charge. The cost of including color images in the print version of the journal will be charged to the author. Cost varies, depending on the specific figures. Color fees range from $300–1200 total for all images in an article. An exact cost will be provided to interested authors.​ Authors will be invoiced for color charges when the journal issue is printed. Authors should indicate upon submission of the manuscript if they wish to pay for color images in the print version. Color images will be converted to grayscale by the publisher for those who opt out of including them in the print version. 


Authors are encouraged to recommend one or two images from their manuscript that may be suitable for the cover inset (portrait orientation only) of the issue in which it appears (identify such an image by its figure number in Step 5 of the submission process). The chosen image will appear in color free of charge.


Supplemental Information:  Supporting information may be submitted for the online version of the published paper. This material will be reviewed as part of the manuscript submission. Supplemental information may include additional data tables, figures, or interactive matter such as maps, 3D PDFs, or media files. Any supplemental information included in the submission should be referenced in the body of the paper after the Acknowledgements section, with the heading “Supplemental Information.” Brief captions for figures, tables, etc., should be listed here and referred to in the text as Figure S1, Figure S2, Table S1, Table S2, Appendix S1, etc. Video files should be labeled Video S1, Video S2, etc.  Interactive maps should be labeled Map S1, Map S2, etc.