Fostering Fortitude Patriotism and Resilience as Civic Piety in Textbooks of National Defense Courses in Finland, 1967–2018

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Linda Hart


This article analyzes “National Defense Courses” textbooks that were used to disseminate defense information to the political, social, and administrative elite in Finland. Textbooks from 1967 to 2018 provide qualitative historical
and sociological data, showing how Finland has prepared for war and other security contingencies for the past five decades. The main shift in fostering the population’s allegiance to the state has gone from addressing the management of political heterodoxy as a patriotic endeavor to one of cultivating apolitical resilience in the face of adversity. Both patriotism and resilience appear in the texts as forms of civic piety, in which people’s individual preferences give way to collective interests.

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Author Biography

Linda Hart, Finnish National Defense University

Linda Hart is a scholar of political and legal sociology. From 2018 to 2022 she worked as a postdoctoral researcher on a variety of projects in war studies and military sociology at the Finnish National Defense University in Helsinki. Prior to that appointment, Hart held positions at the University of Helsinki and at the University of Turku, Finland. She obtained her doctorate in 2016 from the University of Helsinki and she has published articles in Social Politics, European Societies, and Journal of Law and Society.