“Praxicopematics” and Reforma Pactada: The Greek and Spanish Military Reaction to Democratization by Regime Transformation

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Ioannis Tzortzis


Based on the well-known case of the Spanish military’s reaction to the reforma pactada (transition by regime transformation) of 1976–1977, this article aims to compare the little-known yet similar Greek attempt of regime transformation of 1973, the “Markezinis experiment,” which met the fierce opposition of Greek hard-liners and rapidly collapsed. This compari­son between the effective “praxicopematics” (military coup action) in Greece and the familiar case of the failed Spanish military reaction reveals com­mon perceptions of the position of the army toward regime transformation to democracy, as well as differences in organization, tactics, and preparation (or lack thereof) of both regime soft-liners and plotters.

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