Guide for Authors

Bioarchaeology is a vibrant, interdisciplinary field of study that cross-cuts biological anthropology, archaeology, and social theory to situate past peoples within their biological, cultural, and environmental circumstances. The field emphasizes not only the study of human remains but the integrative analysis and interpretation of their context, including the archaeological, socio-cultural and political milieu, and environmental setting. Bioarchaeology focuses on both state-of-the-art methodological innovation and use of theory to investigate a diversity of questions, and is built upon the biocultural approach that recognizes the interconnections among biology, culture, and environment.

Download a PDF version of the Guide for Authors here. 

Bioarchaeology International is a quarterly journal that is global in scope, providing rigorous peer-reviewed publication of substantive articles related to the study of archaeological human remains and mortuary sites. Submissions that are contextually and theoretically informed, and explore the human condition and ways in which human remains and their funerary contexts can provide unique insight on variation, behavior, and lifestyle of past people and communities are encouraged. Studies may represent varying scales of analysis (e.g., regional, community, site/sample, individual, structural, cellular or molecular) that focus on theoretical and methodological issues in the field. Topics of interest include mortuary archaeology and funerary practices, social identity and life course, demography, diet, disease, activity and behavior, residential mobility and migration, skeletal and dental morphological variation and biodistance, trajectories of growth and development, taphonomic processes, responses to shifts in climate or subsistence, responses to colonization or conquest, and other relevant subjects.


Research Articles:  Full-length theoretically informed and data-oriented submissions related to the intent and scope of the journal. These papers may include broad interregional comparisons, regional perspectives, population/community or site/sample level analyses, or explore themes of interest in bioarchaeology. Manuscripts should range from 6000–8000 words, excluding tables, figure captions, and references. 

Brief Reports:  Shorter submissions that may be of a methodological or technical nature or provide innovative perspectives or insights of interest to other investigators. Manuscripts should be 2000–3000 words in length, excluding tables, figure captions, and references.  

Invited Commentary:  Essays that provide synthetic commentary and perspectives on recent themes or issues in the field. Commentary normally will be invited by the Editors-in-Chief, though proposals to contribute an essay on a particular topic may also be considered. Manuscripts usually should not exceed 5000 words exclusive of tables, figure captions, and references. 

Letters to the Editor:  Letters to the Editor should be submitted through the ScholarOne portal and will be considered for publication in Bioarchaeology International provided they do not contain any inflammatory or libelous language or material that has been published previously. A Letter to the Editor will be reviewed by both Editors-in-Chief and may be edited for clarity or brevity. Letters concerning an article published in BI should not exceed 400 words (excluding references) and must be received within one month of the print publication of the article to which it pertains. Letters that do not relate to a BI article may also be submitted at any time to provide information to readers on new discoveries, methods, collections, etc. Such letters also must be no more than 400 words (excluding references) and must disclose any financial associations or potential conflicts of interest.

Authors must submit manuscripts through the ScholarOne system at (An author who does not have online access should contact the Editors-in-Chief for instructions on how to proceed). You will need to create an account the first time you use the ScholarOne system as either an author or reviewer for Bioarchaeology International. To create an account, follow the step-by-step online instructions at To facilitate our professional copyediting, all manuscripts must be submitted in American English. Prior to submission, authors may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited to improve the English.

Authors submitting manuscripts to Bioarchaeology International must abide by international standards and guidelines promulgated by the Committee on Publication Ethics ( Authors must ensure that all work has been properly permitted, licensed (if necessary), and referenced. 

By submitting a manuscript to Bioarchaeology International, you confirm that:

  1. The work has not been published elsewhere, either in whole or in substantial portions, and is not under consideration for publication in another outlet.
  2. The work is original and contains no plagiarized content (i.e., it does not include any unpublished intellectual property taken without knowledge and consent of another individual, copyrighted material for which permission to reproduce has not been obtained, or substantial copying of written work without proper attribution). This certification applies to use of the author’s own previously published material without proper attribution.
  3. All authors have read and approved the manuscript.
  4. All individuals who meet all of the following criteria are included as authors and those who do not meet these criteria are not listed as authors but may be appropriate to include in the Acknowledgements section.
  • The individual made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work, or the acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data; AND
  • Wrote portions of the manuscript or critically reviewed and revised substantive intellectual content prior to submission; AND
  • Approved the version to be published (i.e., initial and subsequent revised manuscript, if revision is required); AND
  • Agrees to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions relating to accuracy or integrity of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Upon acceptance of a manuscript, the corresponding author will be provided with a link to the Journal Publishing Agreement form. This form transfers copyright to the publisher and certifies that authors will not publish the work elsewhere without the written consent of the copyright holder. For coauthored papers, the corresponding author must obtain signatures from all authors on this form. The signed form is taken as evidence that all coauthors are willing to release for publication the draft accepted by the Editors-in-Chief.

Authors, not the journal or its editors and publisher, are responsible for the content of manuscripts, for accuracy of information presented and correct quotation and attribution, the legal right to publish submitted material, and appropriate handling of coauthorship. The author is responsible for obtaining written permission for use of any figures, tables, or other material protected by U.S. or international copyright laws. A permission form may be downloaded from the ScholarOne site for this purpose. Attribution for figures also should be provided in the caption with the initial submission. Prior to publication, the corresponding author must also submit written permission from anyone whose unpublished works (e.g., shared data, papers presented at meetings, personal communications) are cited or used in the paper in question. (A signed permission form, faxes of such permissions, or e-mails originating from the person whose permission is needed will be adequate proof.)

To increase the international appeal of the journal and visibility of our articles, authors will be required upon acceptance of their paper to provide their abstract and keywords in one language of their choice to supplement the English version originally submitted. Authors should plan ahead for this requirement, particularly if someone else must be recruited to translate the abstract into the other language. Please note that provision of the alternative abstract is the responsibility of the author and production may be delayed if the alternative abstract is not provided in a timely fashion. Accuracy of the alternate language abstract rests with the author(s) as Bioarchaeology International is unable to copyedit all alternate language abstracts. 

Conflict of Interest
All authors must declare whether or not a conflict of interest exists at the time of submission. Any known or potential conflict of interest including financial, personal or other relationships with people or organizations within three years of initiating the submitted work that may inappropriately influence or be perceived to influence the author’s objectivity must be disclosed.  Declaration of a conflict may not preclude publication.  Corresponding authors must review this policy with all coauthors and list in the cover letter to the Editors-in-Chief and in the Acknowledgements section all pertinent relationships. 

Plagiarism Software
Software for detecting plagiarism is integrated into ScholarOne.  All manuscripts will be checked by the CrossRef and iThenticate service prior to review. 

Submission Process
The type of paper being submitted (see above) must be selected before uploading files. Text, figures, tables, and other types of files must be uploaded separately in the following formats:

  • Title page, English abstract, text, and references in a single Microsoft Word DOC or DOCX file, or Rich Text Format (RTF). Both the text and references should be double-spaced.
  • Each figure in individual TIF or EPS format preferred (JPEG may be used if high quality with minimum compression). Interactive images (e.g., KML or KMZ maps, 3D PDF) should be uploaded separately. Interactive images must be accompanied by a normal static image in an appropriate format for peer-review and the print version of the journal that is labeled sequentially with normal figures. For example, a 3D PDF must also be submitted as a TIF or JPEG of required resolution and an interactive KML or KMZ map must be submitted as a stationary image of appropriate file type. These static images will link to the interactive content when viewed on line. 
  • Tables in one DOC, DOCX, RTF files, or separate Excel files.
  • The reference template for Bioarchaeology International is available in many of the most popular reference management software products, including all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. When using the word processor plug-ins from these products you may select the appropriate journal template while preparing your article, after which citations and bibliographies will be formatted automatically in the correct style for Bioarchaeology International. If your reference management software does not have a template available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this guide.

The submitted files will be merged into a single PDF manuscript by ScholarOne. Be sure to retain an electronic copy of each file you submitted that is identical to the version submitted online and a copy of the PDF generated by ScholarOne. Tables and figures accompanying the main text should be limited to those that convey the necessary information. Additional material may be provided as supplemental information (see below) that will be available in the online version only.

Recommended reviewers. Please include the names and institutional e-mail addresses of at least three potential reviewers who do not have a conflict of interest (i.e., did not participate in any aspect of the study that would be appropriate to include in the Acknowledgements, are not members of the same department, etc.). Associate Editors are not bound by these suggestions. You may also include names of no more than two individuals you do not wish to review your manuscript in the appropriate field.

Review Process
The Editors reserve the right to reject (with or without peer review), or return for revision, any manuscript that may not fit the scope of the journal, is of poor quality, is excessively long, does not comply with the journal’s style, or violates ethical requirements. Manuscripts will be assigned to an Associate Editor, who will invite reviewers and make a recommendation to the Editors-in-Chief based upon those reviews. Reviewers will remain anonymous to authors, though the identity of authors will be known to the reviewers. 

Decisions on acceptance, minor or major revision, or rejection are made by the Editors-in-Chief based upon the recommendations made by the Associate Editor and reviewers.  A decision letter delineating the outcome will be emailed to the corresponding author by the Editor-in-Chief handling the manuscript. The decision letter will include the reviewers’ assessments. For manuscripts that require revision, any revised documents (including any modified figures or tables) will need to be uploaded to the ScholarOne site. A cover letter that addresses the changes made in response to reviewers’ comments and explains any instance where modification was not made must accompany a revised manuscript. Manuscripts with major revision will be sent again for peer review to ensure changes are adequate and the revised manuscript is suitable for publication. 

Upon acceptance, the manuscript will be professionally copyedited by University of Florida Press personnel and any questions that arise during copyediting will be transmitted to the corresponding author by email. In general, copyedited manuscripts will not be sent to authors unless numerous changes or queries are necessary. Page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author for review and correction of any typographical errors prior to publication online. No text may be rewritten at this stage but editorial errors may be corrected and essential correction of data may be provided. Any changes made by the author are suggestions only and are included at the discretion of the Editors. Corrected proofs should be returned within 48 hours of receipt to the University of Florida Press Journals Manager by email. Revised proofs with corrections shown are not sent to authors. The PDF of corrected page proofs will be posted on the BI web site for Early View access until such time that an article appears within a published issue. A PDF of the published article is supplied to the authors by the publisher for personal use.  

Manuscript Components

Title page. The title page should comprise the first page of your text file. The title page should include the paper title, full names of all authors and the addresses where the work was conducted (present addresses that differ from the preceding should be placed in a footnote) and email addresses, plus the name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and email address of the author to whom all correspondence and proofs should be sent. A suggested running title of 70 characters or less and three key words that are not contained in the title should also be indicated on the title page.

Abstract.  An abstract of no more than 250 words should be included at the top of the second page of your text file and should be pasted into the abstract box in the ScholarOne site. The abstract should provide a concise summary of the full paper. An abstract in one language other than English must be supplied upon acceptance of the manuscript.

Text. Begin the main text of your paper on a new page following the abstract.

Acknowledgements.  This section should appear immediately after the text. Include funding sources with grant or contract numbers of awards. Also list those who provided assistance but do not qualify as coauthors (see Authorship criteria above).

References Cited. Begin the references on a new page (see style guide below).

Notes. Any footnotes not located on the bottom of the page on which they are cited should appear on a new page after the references.

Figure captions. Begin a new page and include captions for each figure in the order in which they appear in the text. Be sure to include attributions for the creator of the image (not necessary if it is a single-authored manuscript and all images are created by the author) or copyright holder.

Tables.  Upload tables as one Word document, with each table placed on a separate page (do not include page numbers on tables). Any table in Excel should be uploaded separately from the main text document.

Figures. Each figure should be uploaded as a separate file. Do not embed figures or tables in the main text file.


Manuscripts are not restricted to a particular format (e.g, Materials, Methods, Results, Conclusion) but should contain headings that define each section of the paper clearly. Do not use INTRODUCTION as a heading or begin the body of the paper with a heading. All headings should be flush left. Primary headings should use initial caps (e.g., Methods, References Cited). Secondary subheadings should have an initial cap only (e.g., Spatial organization of the cemetery). Tertiary headings should be italicized, followed by a period, and run in with the text (e.g., “Hypothesis 3. The…”). 

General Style Instructions

  • Do not begin sentences with abbreviations or acronyms (e.g., “ASU bioarchaeologists recommend that…”).
  • Gender-neutral language should be used, as recommended by the American Anthropological Association in 1973. This statement encourages the use of non-specific sex terminology rather than generic male pronouns (“he” or “him”). Use terms such as “one,” “person,” “humans,” “humankind,” “chairperson,” unless reference is specifically related to sex or gender roles (e.g., “man,” “woman,” “manhood,” etc.). 
  • Use numerals for numbers greater than or equal to 10 and for all references to age, weight, measure, or time (e.g., 2 years old; 1 m; 3 kg; 6 ml; 8%). Spell out numbers at the beginning of a sentence or if the number is less than 10 (e.g., “Two individuals,” “One hundred meters,” “Twenty-two percent,” or “found in eight graves at the site”) and when used as an estimate (e.g., “The cemetery was used for several hundred years.”) Ordinal numbers should be spelled out in the text (e.g., “twelfth century,” “twenty-first percentile”) but References Cited should use numerals (e.g., “Paper presented at the 81st Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology”). Commas should be used in numbers of four digits or more (i.e., 1,000, 10,000, 100,000, etc).
  • Use the metric system for all measurements unless referencing historical systems (e.g., 1 cubit). Temperature should be in degrees Celsius. Equivalent units may be inserted parenthetically (e.g., inches, miles, degrees Fahrenheit). Abbreviations are in lower case without periods for measurements (e.g., 2 m, 100 km2,5 kg, 10 ml, 4 l, etc.).
  • Symbols should be used following numerical values for percent (%) or degrees (°).
  • Abbreviate the word “Figure” in the text only when it appears in parentheses: Figure 1 versus (Fig. 2) or (Figs. 3–4). 
  • Report dates in years before present (B.P.) and calendar years as A.D. or B.C. 
  • Radiocarbon dates should be identified as calibrated using standard conventions as cal A.D. or cal B.C. The calibration used must be cited and if made for 1 or 2 σ (the latter is preferred).  The calibrated age must be presented as a range of calendar age, or ranges with probability of each reported if more than one is possible. Four-digit dates are reported without a comma (e.g., 5468 B.P.), but five-digit dates retain a comma (e.g., 10,560 B.P.). If several calibrated dates are included, they should be presented as a table.
  • Isotope designations should appear in superscript before the element symbol (e.g., 14C rather than C14).
  • Preferred spellings for frequently used terms in bioarchaeology include archaeology (not archeology unless it appears that way in a title or quotation), fieldwork, X-ray (noun), x-ray (verb), cross section (noun), cross-section (verb). Spelling, hyphenation, and punctuation should follow Merriam-Webster’ Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed., and Webster’s Third New International Dictionary.
  • Capitalization of nonarchaeological terms should follow The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, Chapter 7.
  • Include common accents and umlauts for languages such as French, Spanish, Portuguese, German, etc., in the text and in the References Cited section.
  • Use italics for words in any language other than English that do not appear in the dictionary as commonly used in English (e.g., in situ, a priori, etc., are not italicized). Use italics for genus, species, and varietal designations. Titles of books and journals should be italicized when included in the text and in the references cited. Titles of articles should not be italicized when mentioned in the text but put within quotation marks.

Citation Style
In-text parenthetical citations including author and copyright date should be arranged in alphabetical order and individual authors separated by semicolons with reference to specific page numbers, figures, or tables immediately following a colon (e.g., Agarwal and Glencross 2011:8; Baker 2014:Figure 1, 843–844, 852; Ikram et al. 2015). Date of publication should follow mention of an author in the text and should reflect the date of copyright, which may differ from the date of print publication. For example, a journal article on early view will have a copyright date reflecting the year of its online publication, while the journal issue in which it appears may not be published until the following calendar year. Citations and references should reflect the copyright date. If unpublished, the year of manuscript production or submission should be used (e.g., the date submitted for an article in review; the date accepted or date of scheduled publication if known for an article in press). Multiple citations to the same author are separated by commas (e.g., Schoeninger 1995, 1999, 2009).   

Additional examples follow:

According to Cucina and Tiesler (2003:1–2), status differences among the Classic Maya …

Diversity has been found in late Pleistocene populations of North Africa by Crevecoeur et al. (2009) …

When citing multiple works by the same author that were published in the same year, identify each in the text e.g., Geller (2009a, 2009b); Larsen et al. (2001a, 2001b) and included in the references alphabetically by first word of the article or by surname of the second author as follows:

Geller, Pamela L. 2009a. Bodyscapes, biology, and heteronormativity. American Anthropologist 111(4): 504–516. DOI: 10.1111/j.1548-1433.2009.01159.x.

Geller, Pamela L. 2009b. Identity and difference: Complicating gender in archaeology. Annual Review of Anthropology 38: 65–81. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-091908-164414.

Larsen, Clark Spencer, Mark C. Griffin, Dale L. Hutchinson, Vivian E. Noble, Lynette Norr, Robert F. Pastor, Christopher B. Ruff, Katherine F. Russell, Margaret J. Schoeninger, Michael Schultz, Scott W. Simpson, and Mark F. Teaford. 2001. Frontiers of contact: Bioarchaeology of Spanish Florida. Journal of World Prehistory 15(1):69–123.

Larsen, Clark Spencer, Dale L. Hutchinson, Margaret J. Schoeninger, and Lynette Norr. 2001. Food and stable isotopes in La Florida: Diet and nutrition before and after contact. In Bioarchaeology of Spanish Florida: The Impact of Colonialism, edited by Clark Spencer Larsen. pp. 52–81. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Note that any time a citation is included in a parenthetical statement it must be put in brackets.  Example:  (Jankauskas [2003] was among the first to recognize this relationship.)

References Cited
In preparing your manuscript, it is not necessary to include indentations within the references (as shown in the examples provided) although reference software plug-ins may add indentations similar to those used in typesetting accepted manuscripts for publication. All references cited within the text should be arranged in alphabetical order by surname of the first author and by year of publication (oldest first) in the case of multiple references to a single author or set of authors. For authors who have the same last name, use the first letter of the first name to place in alphabetical order (e.g., Baker, Brenda J., followed by Baker, Joan E., and Baker, Paul T.). Names beginning with Mc, Mac, St., or Saint should be alphabetized letter by letter, as they appear. Full names of authors should be used when available. Initials should be used only for authors known by initials (e.g., J.K. Rowling). Authors with two last names (not middle and last names) that are not hyphenated (e.g., Gwen Robbins Schug) should be alphabetized by the first surname (i.e., alphabetized as Robbins Schug; but Jones for Frederic Wood Jones and Larsen for Clark Spencer Larsen as “Wood” and “Spencer” are middle names). For authors with multiple names, such as Spanish names, alphabetize under the first element of the family name followed by the full additional family names following The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition. (e.g., García Lorca, Federico; Balboa, Vasco Núñez de; Picasso, Pablo Diego Ruiz y).

Date of publication should reflect the date of copyright (which will be the date of online availability for journal articles). When consulting an e-book in which pagination differs from the print book, please indicate that the e-book version was consulted. Use chapter numbers or paragraph numbers when page numbers are unavailable. Include full titles of all publications rather than abbreviations and provide the DOI at the end of the reference when it is available. Names of publishers should not include “and Company,” “Inc.,” “Publishers,” etc. For place of publication, names of major cities (Buenos Aires, Cairo, Mumbai, New York, Paris, Sydney) do not need to be accompanied by name of state, province, or country unless ambiguous (e.g., London, Ontario, versus London, England). Less known cities should include additional information with states abbreviated according to U.S. Postal Service designations (e.g., Hoboken, NJ). An exception is made for presses that include mention of state or province in their name (e.g., University Press of Florida, Gainesville).

Single-Author Book
Sofaer, Joanna R. 2006. The Body as Material Culture: A Theoretical Osteoarchaeology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Multi-Author Book
Case, D. Troy, and Christopher Carr. 2008. The Scioto Hopewell and Their Neighbors: Bioarchaeological Documentation and Cultural Understanding. Springer, New York.

Edited Volume
Ikram, Salima, Jessica Kaiser, and Roxie Walker, eds. 2015. Egyptian Bioarchaeology: Humans, Animals, and the Environment. Sidestone Press, Leiden.

Revised edition
Katzenberg, M. Anne, and Shelley R. Saunders, eds. 2008. Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.

Translated Book
Duday, Henri. 2009. The Archaeology of the Dead: Lectures in Archaeothanatology. Studies in Funerary Archaeology, vol. 3. Translated by Anna Maria Cipriani and John Pearce. Oxbow Books, Oxford.

Titled Volume or Monograph in a Series
Littleton, Judith. 1998. Skeletons and Social Composition: Bahrain 300 BC–AD 250. BAR International Series, 703. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.

Multivolume Work
Thwaites, Ruben Gold, ed. 1896-1901. The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France, 1610–1791. 73 vols. Burrows Brothers, Cleveland.

Reprinted Book
Thwaites, Ruben Gold, ed. 2013 [1897]. The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France, 1610–1791, Vol. 4. Burrows Brothers, Cleveland. 2013 facsimile ed. Forgotten Books, London.

Note: The accompanying in-text citation would be (Thwaites 2013 [1897]).

Articles in a Journal
Agarwal, Sabrina C. 2016. Bone morphologies and histories: Life course approaches in bioarchaeology. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement: Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 159 (S 61):130–149. DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.22905.

Gowland, Rebecca L., and Andrew T. Chamberlain. 2005. Detecting plague: Palaeodemographic characterisation of a catastrophic death assemblage. Antiquity 79:146–157.

Krigbaum, John, Scott M. Fitzpatrick, and Jamie Bankaitis. 2013. Human paleodiet at Grand Bay, Carriacou, Lesser Antilles. The Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology 8(2):210–227. DOI: 10.1080/15564894.2012.756082.

Book Chapters
Tung, Tiffiny A. 2014. Making warriors, making war: Violence and militarism in the Wari empire. In Embattled Bodies, Embattled Places: War in Pre-Columbian America, edited by Andrew K. Scherer and John W. Verano. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C., pp. 229–258.

Cucina, Andrea, and Vera Tiesler. 2011. Salud oral y caries entre los mayas del período clásico. In Vida Cotidiana de los Antiguos Mayas del Norte de la Península de Yucatán, edited by Rafael Cobos and Lilia  Fernández Souza. Ediciones de la Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Mérida, pp. 23–44.

Articles in Conference Proceedings
Stock, Jay T. 2012. Human evolution after the origin of our species: Bridging the gap between palaeoanthropology and bioarchaeology. In Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the British Association for Biological Anthropology and Osteoarchaeology (BABAO), edited by Piers Mitchell and Jo Buckberry. Archaeopress, Oxford, pp. 3–15.

Baker, Brenda J. 2014. Tracking transitions in the Fourth Cataract region of el-Ginefab: Results of the Arizona State University fieldwork, 2007-2009.  In The Fourth Cataract and Beyond: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference for Nubian Studies, edited by Julie R. Anderson and Derek A. Welsby. British Museum Publications on Egypt and Sudan 1. Peeters, Leuven, pp. 841–855.  

Glencross, Bonnie A. 2003. An Approach to the Palaeoepidemiology of Bone Fractures: Methods and Techniques Applied to Long Bones from the Indian Knoll Skeletal Sample, Kentucky. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto.  ProQuest, Ann Arbor, MI.

Schoeninger, Margaret. 1980. Changes in Human Subsistence Activities from the Middle Paleolithic to the Neolithic Period in the Middle East. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Conference Presentation
The type of presentation, podium paper or poster, should be indicated. Presentations in symposia should include symposium title and organizers. 

Cucina, Andrea, and Vera Tiesler. 2010. Scurvy among Columbus’ crew: Life and death at La Isabela (1494-1498). Paper presented at the 18th European Meeting of the Paleopathology Association, Vienna.

Jankauskas, R., C. Roberts, R.H.Steckel, C.S. Larsen, P.L. Walker, J. Blondiaux, G.Grupe, G.Maat, G. McGlynn, A. Papathanasiou, M. Teschler-Nicola, U. Wittwer-Backofen, A. Agnew, S. Assis, Z Bereczki, B. Bertrand, T.K. Betsinger, M. Binder, S. Boulter, C. Bourbou, A. Boylston, M. Brickley, L. Bürli, C. Cooper, A. Coppa, J. Coughlan, A. Drozd, E. During, C. Eliopoulos, J. Eng, F. Engle, S. Fox, M. Furtado, G. Gerhards, S. Groves, K. Harkins, P. Holck, M. Holst, G. Hotz, R. Ives, T. Jakob, J. Jennings, H. Jstus, K. Kaminska, A. Kjellström, C. J. Knüsel, T. Kozlowski, A. Lagia, C. Lopes, S. Manolis, A. Marcsik, C. Marques, C. Moenke, C. Niel, S.A. Novak, F. Novotny, J. Peck, I. Potiekhina, B. Rega, R. Richman, F. Rijpma, J. Rose, J. Ruiz, P. Sannen, P. Sciulli, M. Smith, A. Soficaru, M. Spannagl, R. Storm, G. Stroud, E. Subira, D. Swales, V. Tristaroli, E. Tyler, S. Lurich-Bochsler, S. Vatteoni, V. Villar, R. Wiggins, and L.L. Williams. 2009. Contextual dimensions of European health and lifestyle: The archaeological and historical record. Poster presented in the invited symposium, “Reconstructing Health and Disease in Europe: The Early Middle Ages through the Industrial Period,” organized by Richard H. Steckel, Clark Spencer Larsen, Charlotte Roberts, and Phillip L. Walker, at the 78th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Chicago.  

References to web sites and online documents must minimally include the full url and date of access. For web pages that include a copyright date or date last updated, provide this date after the name of the author or group.

Bekvalac, J.  2007. St Mary Graces. Centre for Human Bioarchaeology, Museum of London. Accessed April 12, 2016.

Ikram, Salima. 2014. Animal Mummy Project.!am-project/c21ea. Accessed May 11, 2016.

Mission archéologique Suisse au Soudan. 2016. Kerma. Accessed May 11, 2016.

Endnotes: Use endnotes sparingly.Any endnotes should be numbered consecutively throughout the article.Word processing software that incorporates endnotes may be used. Otherwise, cite the notes consecutively in the text but include them at the end of the document (prior to the References Cited).

Figures: Graphics should be uploaded as separate files that include the figure number (e.g., Figure1.tif, Figure2.jpg). Figures must be numbered consecutively as they are mentioned in the text (i.e., the second reference to a figure must be labeled Figure 2, not Figure 3 or 4). Figures with multiple components (e.g., 1a, 1b, 1c views) should be uploaded as a single file. Lettering must be legible upon reduction and should be consistent within each figure and ideally between figures. Recommended fonts are Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times).

Resolution must meet the minimum required for publication.

Black and white/grayscale or color images should be provided with a minimum resolution of 300dpi at a size of 5 x 7 inches.

If you are scanning artwork, photographs should be scanned at 300dpi at a size of 5 x 7 inches. Line art should be scanned at 1200dpi at a size of 5 x 7 inches.

Digital photographs should be taken at highest quality with minimum compression (RAW files) if possible. Editing programs provided with cameras as well as Adobe Photoshop typically allow saving RAW images in TIF rather than JPG format.

Color images will appear in the online version and downloadable PDF free of charge. The cost of including color images in the print version of the journal will be charged to the author. Cost varies, depending on the specific figures. Color fees range from $300–1200 total for all images in an article. An exact cost will be provided to interested authors. Authors will be invoiced for color charges when the journal issue is printed. Authors should indicate upon submission of the manuscript if they wish to pay for color images in the print version. Color images will be converted to grayscale by the publisher for those who opt out of including them in the print version. 

Authors are encouraged to recommend one or two images from their manuscript that may be suitable for the cover inset (portrait orientation only) of the issue in which it appears (identify such an image by its figure number in Step 5 of the submission process). The chosen image will appear in color free of charge.

Supplemental Information:  Supporting information may be submitted for the online version of the published paper. This material will be reviewed as part of the manuscript submission. Supplemental information may include additional data tables, figures, or interactive matter such as maps, 3D PDFs, or media files. Any supplemental information included in the submission should be referenced in the body of the paper after the Acknowledgements section, with the heading “Supplemental Information.” Brief captions for figures, tables, etc., should be listed here and referred to in the text as Figure S1, Figure S2, Table S1, Table S2, Appendix S1, etc. Video files should be labeled Video S1, Video S2, etc.  Interactive maps should be labeled Map S1, Map S2, etc. 

Open Access
Authors have the choice to pay an open access fee to have their article made freely available to both subscribers and the public. For more information, please contact Lauren Phillips at

Self-Archiving Policy
Authors may self-archive the preprint (accepted manuscript) version of the article at any time within a personal website or institutional repository. Authors may self-archive the published article after the end of a one-year embargo period.